we will discussed about world war 1 history , How was it started ? or end of this war , the causes of this war , ideologies of countries’s leaders and important points of world war 1 history .
World war also known as The Great war , The War To End All War and Global War . this world war ran 28 July 1914 – 11 November 1918 .
Before this world war 1 No one war was not happened After some year again world war 2 happened that’s why we speak of these two wars one is world war 1 and world war 2 . No One may have think that world war 2 would happened .
Casualties of world war 1 history
According to world war 1 history
- 17 million people were killed in world war 1 ——- 11 million soldiers were killed and 6 million Civilains or people .
- And 20 million people were wounded according to world war 1 history .
Countries who all fought world war 1 history
In this war two groups of countries fought One was Allied Powers and Second was Central Powers .
In Allied Powers group was in Russia , France , Britain , USA ( 1917 – 1918 ) And Japan .
In the other hand was Central Powers Group were in Austro-Hungarian Empire , Germany and Ottoman Empire .
USA fought this war for only one year according to world war 1 history .
Today two countries is in Europe one AUSTRIA and HUNGARY , a kingdom ruled on this area of Austria and Hungary which name was Habsburg . Some Germans , Italians , Romanians , Hungarians and other countries citizen were lived on Austo-Hungary Empire .
And Ottoman empire which was in modern map in place of modern Turkey
the Causes of world war 1
people or historians tells four reasons Militarism , Alliance System , Imperialism and Nationalism according to world war 1 history .
Militarism of World War 1
Militarism :- Every Country tried to less with Arms Race . Machine Guns were invented during world war 1 and Machine gun was used first time in this world war 1 .
First time Britain was used tanks in world war 1 . Large Naval ships manufactured during this world war 1 and used .
Before world war 1 armies of countries were not very big But beginning of War Armies were made Big .
that time Germany and Britain have big complex and factories and Germany and Britain were very developed countries .
Therefore Both countries were used their factories for improving militarism . weapons , tanks , vehicles and needs were made in Britain and Germany .
And Every country wanted to make a big army like Germany and Britain .
Alliances of World War 1
Many Alliances were signed in Europe in 19th century for maintain balance among the countries . Some Secret treaties were signed among the countries . During the world war 1 .
Main two alliances of world war 1 history .
One was Triple alliances in which Germany , Austria-Hungary , Italy was included . this was signed in 1882 .
Second was Triple Entente , signed in 1907 and countries were joined France , Britain and Russia .
Germany , Italy and Austria-Hungary was part of Triple alliances but after few months Italy leaved gathering of triple alliances .
And when war was started , Italy fought war with France and Britain .
Since Austria-Hungary had different types of Ethnic so Austria-Hungary had disintegrated into many countries .
Since Allied Power had chance to win more because Allied power had more countries area wise and more resources .
In 1882 a treaty was signed among Italy , Germany and Austria-Hungary .
In 1914 a deal was signed between Germany and the Ottoman Empire .
another deal signed between Russia and France in 1984 .
Imperialism of World War 1
At Beginning conflict was started between Serbia and Austria but After this conflict had spread among Russia , Germany , France and United State America .
During world war 1 Many western countries wanted to make his colony in Africa and Asia .
Even western countries wanted to capture Asian and African fields .
Because Africa was very big and could not explore completely .
Scramble of Africa was started after 1880 , when Germany , France , Poland and Belgium succeeded to captured enough big fields of Africa .
Britain was a leader of all western countries because every western country wanted to copy model of Britain because it was not easy to capture India but Britain managed to captured India .
25% of world countries Britain succeeded to captured due of this Britain got many resources in huge quantity and Manpower .
And 1.3 millions Indian soldiers fought world war 1 Britain’s side according world war 1 history .
Indian soldiers were more than British soldiers in according world war 1 history .
Nationalism of world war 1
Nationalism spirit arisen in Europeans countries in 19 Century . who Germany , Italy and Baltics states were , that time these Baltics states were not independent .
some Baltics states were under in the influence of Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empire but these Baltics states wanted to be independent countries .
As was Germany and Italy in Europe .
So many country’s spirit had to be that fight and Capture the lands of countries .
So countries wanted to fight , capture the lands and make the separate country this all was according to world war 1 .
Other Causes of world war 1
STRAITS OF DARDANELLES :- straits of Dardanelles helps to connect Aegean and Black Sea . Another straits of Bosphorus also there in beside of straits of Dardanelles .
And Russian trade ships went through black sea and Aegean and here ottoman empire were improving their influence that’s why Russia attacked against ottoman empire .
And Russia did not want that Any country or empire improve their influence on straits of Dardanelles and Bosphorus .
- European war spirit was very short because improvement in technology and science therefore Europe felt war would be very short but after this could not true .
- Many leaders , News paper and book spoke that War was necessary for make a separate country , growing of country and development of country so War was very necessary According to world war 1 history .
- In 1912 , Balkans countries Romania , Bulgaria , Albania , Greece and Serbia ruled by Ottoman empire . these Balkans countries were independent .
- So these Balkans countries succeeded to get independence from ottoman Empire . After sometime Serbia had also taken independence by the help of Austria-Hungary .
- Since Bosnia and Crostia ruled by Austria-Hungary , even Bosnia and Crostia wanted to get independence from Austria-Hungary .
- From 1890 to 1912 , Three war were happened among ottoman empire , Austria-Hungary and Russia for capturing Serbia , Romania , Bulgaria , Albania and Greece .
- Because Serbia , Romania , Bulgaria , Albania and Greece were come among ottoman empire , Austria-Hungary Empire and Russia according to world war 1 history .
- Leaders and books said POWDER KEG to Balkans mean was ” this is a container of powder , can catch fire anytime ” and it was happened successfully .
A big cause of World war 1
Death of Archduke Franz Ferdinand .
Archduke Franz Ferdinand was prince of Austria-Hungary Empire and he was about to be a King of Austria-Hungary Empire after his uncle death .
Archduke Franz Ferdinand with her wife had come in SARAJEVO city in Bosnia and Archduke Franz Ferdinand was shot by Gavrilo princep with Black hand organisation members on 28 June 1914 .
After death of Archduke Franz Ferdinand , Austria-Hungary warned to Serbia because Serbia were helping to Bosnia to be as a independent country .
Serbian people and Serbian intelligence Officers conspired death of Archduke Franz Ferdinand according to world war 1 history .
Events of World war 1
- After death of Archduke Franz Ferdinand , Austria-Hungary sent ultimatum or to Serbia that was Austria-Hungary would rule to Serbia with accepting some conditions otherwise Austria-Hungary would attacked on Serbia.
- So Serbia asked help from Russia , wanted a chance of interfere between Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empire because Russia also wanted to rule on Serbia and other Balkans countries .
- Second reason of Russia helped of Serbia that was Slavic people lived in Serbia Because what all people lives in Russia and Serbia , calls them Slavic people and these people of Slavic Ethnicity according to world war 1 history .
- As soon as Austria-Hungary knew that Russia was stand by Serbia .
- where as Austria-Hungary went toward the Germany for asking help against Russia because Austria-Hungary and Germany were signed a treaty together in 1882 .
- So Germany gave permission to Austria-Hungary , can do all with Russia and Serbia . Germany did full support to Austria-Hungary .
- So Austria-Hungary and Germany were announced war on Serbia instantly Even Russia was announced war on Germany .
- After some days France announced war on Germany because Russia and France were signed triple Entente , support in war Each other legally .
- Italy dissimulated to stand in war with Germany and Austria-Hungary and said Triple alliance were made for only Defence from countries not for attacked on any country .
- this crisis is also known as July crisis because this all were happened in July and also known as diplomatic Crisis according to world war 1 history .
First attack of world war 1
Germany planned of first attack on France not on Russia because armies of Russia was very big numbers therefore Germany planned first attack on France through ways of Belgium .
SO Germany attacked on Belgium then enter into France through Belgium and as soon as Germany entered into France , Britain announced war on Germany .
Because A treaty was signed between Britain and Belgium , which was treaty of London in 1839 . so Britain also fought this war cause of treaty .
Germany succeeded to enter France near Paris not in Paris after Britain army and France army fought together against Germany .
Another In East , Germany managed to beaten Russian army and 300 thousand soldiers were dead according to world war 1 history .
After 1 month in 1914 , Ottoman Empire started attacks on Russia , ottoman Empire and Russia were enemy ago many year because both wanted to capture straits of Dardanelles according to world war 1 history .
and to capture Suez Canal ( it was connect Britain and India from each other ) . but Russia succeeded to push back to ottoman empire and saved Suez Canal .
The casualties due to Trenches
Pit on the ground or land which is very long with necessary width as soldiers want to make and soldier fight with live in trenches , sit also and eat as well in trenches .
if you get off the trenches so you can get damage from guns and enemies .
these trenches were made between France and Germany Fronts .
NO advantages neither disadvantages could not take Germany and France for 3 year nothing were happened .
trenches does protect from artillery weapons .
That time rained during war so many soldier was turned infected by diseases and fungal infections .
So Many soldiers passed away due to diseases .
many casualties happened by machine guns for gaining small lands .
Record of deaths in battle of Somme
Battle of Somme was a war in 1916 in which 80,000 Allied soldiers were passed away in one day .
many soldiers belonged from Britain and Canada and throughout the War 3,00,000 soldiers were dead .
why does we call global war to World War 1 ?
Throughout the world fighting were happening among the worlds colonies .
In Africa , fight was running . colonies of Germany in Africa continent .
France and Britain attacked on Togo , Tanzania and Cameroon of Germany colonies .
some islands of Germany in Pacific Ocean , Micronesian and some chinese cities ruled by Germany attacked by Japan .
Japan also participated in this war because Japan and Britain signed treaty for help of each other in war .
In Crimea sea country of Black sea , Sevastopol city in Crimea this was a important naval port .
so Ottoman Empire started bombardment on Odessa and Sevastopol .
what were the Gallipoli and ANZAC ?
Allied forces attacked on Gallipoli , where ANZAC Soldier were deployed .
ANZAC soldiers means Australia and New Zealand soldiers .
A long conflict ran but ANZAC soldiers could not take success
In the memory of martyr of ANZAC Soldiers . today In Australia and New Zealand People celebrates as a ANZAC DAY .
where all and how was happened naval war between Germany and Britain in world war 1 ?
Naval war was happened in Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean according to world war 1 history . Germany first time manufactured U Boat and U BOATS started attacks on allied ships .
In starting U boats attacked only on Navy ships but after sometime in war these U boats attacked on Civilian passengers ships , went Europe to America drop civilians .
When and Why did America join the world war 1 ?
A boat Lusitania were destroyed by German U boat and 1200 people were dead in this Accident in Atlantic Ocean .
that’s why America joined the world war 1 in 1917 because Germany started attacked on American civilians passengers ships .
President of America was Woodrow Wilson according to world war 1 history that time
In 1914 Woodrow Wilson denied to join this war and said that we have nothing to do from European war .
But Finally America Joined and fought IN 1917 for only one year according to world war 1 history .
How did Indian contribute and die for world war 1 ?
More or less 1.3 million Indians fought world war 1 under British Army according to world war 1 history .
Indian soldiers fought in France , mesopotamia ( IRAQ ) and Egypt and 50,000 Indian soldiers had carried out according to world war 1 history .
India gate were made in respect of martyr of Indian soldiers in world war 1 and 3rd Anglo Afghan war .
Involvement of USA in world war 1
Since stalemate succeeded setup between Germany and France for 3 years in border of Belgium and France .
And On April 1917 , USA had involved in world war 1 but America did behave neutrally to both Britain and Germany during world war 1 .
How was America turn economically strong by world war 1 ?
America sent needs and supplies to both Britain and Germany according to world war 1 history .
Even ships , weapons and foods sent by America to Germany and Britain .
So America succeeded to make a economically strong country .
so when American ship Lusitania was destroyed by German U boat in that many Americans people had lost their life .
So America decided to fought against Germany .
A secret letter of Germany in world war 1
Second cause of join of America in world war 1 was that Germany sent a secret letter to Mexico , Neighbouring country of America .
In secret letter of Germany was that if Mexico would attack on America so Germany would include with himself in war .
So America knew about this secret letter then America’s president Woodrow Wilson passed the proposal in parliament for engaged in war with Britain .
So America was having to fight in war , helping Britain against Germany .
American Army sent his soldiers in western fronts ( France-Germany border ) for fight with British army and French army against Germany .
Why was Germany having to sent a secret letter to Mexico ?
Germany sent secret letter because Germany knew that Soonar or later America will join the war with Britain and fought against Germany according to world war 1 history .
Woodrow Wilson 14 points
In 1918 , Woodrow Wilson wrote a letter .
In that letter Woodrow Wilson told 14 points that was why America joined this war , what the motive was behind the war of our , and what happen should after this war .
as you see above as Woodrow Wilson wrote 14 points ,
The letter was about —-
- World Peace
- Freedom of Navigation —- Submarines of Any country would not sink ships of another .
- End of Empire Building
- A league of Nations Group will be made according to world war 1 history
Russian Revolution during world war 1
In 1917 two revolution were happened in Russian .
In February Revolution , Removed the throne of King Nicholas 2nd because of Get Over of Government .
So provisional Government had made in Russia because of revolution done by some people of Government .
but Even this provisional Government could success to continue for no long time because Again Government was got over by another revolution was happened by Bolsheviks .
Lenin was leader of Bolsheviks party , Lenin did not want war or fight against Germany as well as people want as well .
So Lenin signed agreement with Germany for peace between Russia and Germany .
the name was Treaty of Brest-Litovsk of this agreement signed in 1918 .
So War was ended between Russia and Germany in East fronts or Border of Russia and Germany .
Because Germany was not able to fright from both fronts .
And In west Front fight was carrying on according world war 1 history .