First of all we are to know what was Us and Soviet union cold war ? USA ( United state america ) and USSR ( Soviet Union ) .
what was US and Soviet union cold war ?
The cold war was a geopolitical tension between the two states . this cold war ran upto 45 year and these two states were the soviet union with its satellite states and The United States with NATO allies .
UK , France , Luxemburg , Spain , Italy , Germany these all are NATO allies and these all western countries was with United state America .
Another side was Eastern Bloc Soviet union , Poland ,Hungary , Bulgaria , Romania , and East Germany .
US and Soviet union cold war ran from 1947 to 1991 . Some historians assumes to end of this war to 1999 and Some people says that there is no fix date of this war .
it is also known as a ‘Era’ .
Why does we call it COLD WAR ?
Reason behind COLD WAR there was no combat or direct physcal fight between US and Soviet Union .
Throughout 45 years a lot of proxy war was done in Korea , Vietnam , Afganistan .
proxy war we can define as —- when Country A does fight with Country B but soviet union enter into this and does support to Country A where as United state enter into this fight and does support to Country B .
so United state and soviet union fought indirectly . but mainly fight was between Country A and Country B . This is called proxy war .
Characteristic of the cold war
- In one side United state was a capatalist economy and another side Soviet Union was a communist economy .
- Most of countries did not trust on another country , countries did think about another that which country in the influence of capatalism or communism .
- United state and soviet union wanted to run forward to each others So United state and Soviet union had make huge amount of weapons during this Era .
- During this Era lots of story you would heard of surveillance or spying and much of surveillance activities was done by United state and soviet Union for each others .
- both united state and soviet union wanted a good image or personality on infront of another country , both states tried to make positive think about itself .
- Sometime america said that soviet union is a Evil empior .
- Brinkmanship —- during this Era many countries tried to do nuclear attacks , nuclear attacks warning , many tests of nuclear weapons by this many countries deny to all this .
- whenever in this cold war any country given warning to another country after sometime that’s what country turn back with excuses .
US and Soviet union cold war never turned into hot because of nuclear weapons . United state and soviet union succeeded to prepare nuclear weapons in huge amount quantity .
In US and soviet union cold war , america and soviet union had nuclear weapons in much quantity by this quantity earth can finished many times .
the beginnings of us and soviet union cold war
Some historians says US and soviet union cold war was started from time of russian revolution in 1917 .
after russian revolution , a russian civil war was happened
In russian civil war there were two sides one was Red side and another was White side ,
Red side was communist at the end of this civil war , red had won .
And whites was supported by western countries like USA , France and united kingdom .
After end of civil war , In 1922 soviet union was established
many western countries did not give recognition to soviet union upto few years .
Finally 1933 diplomatic relation was established between United state and soviet union .
And in this time leader of soviet union joseph stalin .
after some years joseph stalin was turned into Dictatorial leader .
joseph stalin did many changes in rules and government of soviet union .
when second world war was started united state and soviet union both were allies against Nazy jermany ( axis power ) .
since germany attacked on soviet union two times in world war 1 and world war 2 .
so soviet did not want risk by germany therefore soviet union wanted to make a buffer zone .
that all could happened by the countries of eastern and central Europe .
then after eastern and central Europe made buffer of soviet union between Germany .
Another United state tried to increase his influence on France , Japan , West Germany and Korea by financially help and america did stand persons in politics of Korea , Japan and France , who people loved or supported to capitalism .
carry on this till 1947 an iron curtain has spread over the continent by winston churcill was prime minister of England till 1945 .
west Germany , France , United kingdom were capitalist countries .
but west Germany occupied by America , France and United Kingdom .
and remaining part of Germany occupied by soviet union .
communist government were going to make in Bulgaria , Romania and Hungary .
so complete Europe was seperating into two part by Iron curtain .
SO this green LINE is IRON CURTAIN and growing policy of soviet Union , America made policy against growing power of soviet union .
America made 2 – 3 policies .
was to stop influence or growing communism of soviet union , america did not want to france , United kingdom turn into communism .
this plan of america was that america would give money to France , United kingdom , Germany to reset his economy or construction what all destroy was destroyed during world war .
Trueman doctrine 1947
this policy was to support who all countries were against communism . if communism impose on vietnam , korea , etc so america will help for those who do not want to turn into communism .
In korean war USA supported to south Korea .
USA did support to many anti communist governance in whole world .
In south America many communist protest were going on . so CIA gave money to stop protest .
as you can see in above image orange colour portion is soviet union communism and in red potion china exist communism as well .
at that time some Europe countries have become communist and United state wanted to stop spreading communism in france , india and australia , because 1950 communism a famous philosophy and attractive thing .
the berlin blockade , 1948
this was a first event of US and soviet union cold war
As in above blue area west Germany occupied by United state , France and United Kingdom where as Red area east Germany occupied by Soviet Union
as you can see a small portion in light Green which was BERLIN country and Half Berlin occupied by soviet union and half occupied by US , UK and France .
since BERLIN completely surrounded by soviet Union for taking complete berlin ,soviet union stopped supply chain by train which was come west Germany .
so after this United state sent supply by air drops after one year soviet union’s blockade plan had been failed .
In 1949 of us and soviet union cold war
After Berlin blockade , America felt do something very strong against soviet union .
formation of NATO
America did formation of NATO during us and soviet union cold war . In NATO was many allies countries of america .
like united kingdom , France , Norway , Belgium , all of these formed NATO at once .
this was mainly a military organization who worked to stop soviet union moving during this US and soviet union cold war .
soviet union tested its first nuclear weapon
America already have nuclear bombs and America dropped his bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki .
so soviet union showed his power to america and his allies through atoms bombs during US and soviet union cold war in 1949 .
In 1949 Since east and central Europe occupied by soviet Union .
soviet union has turned communist to east and central of Europe .
the contours are clear
it has cleared in 1950 , this were going a fight those countries before five years us and soviet union at once was beat to Germany and Japan in world war .
now both us and soviet union were fighting to each other .
And this also was a Ideological War —
capitalism / consumerism / democracy — united state
communism / socialism / totalitarianism — soviet union
During this US and soviet union cold war .
the nuclear angle
In human history first time world had a weapon by which thousand of people or millions of people could died by atom bomb .
since us and soviet union had nuclear weapons or bomb .
therefore both us and soviet union were fearing to dropping of atom bombs to each other .
that’s why us and soviet union never did drop atom bomb on each other .
therefore US and soviet union cold war never was turned into ‘ hot ‘ war .
if Us and soviet union had dropped atom bomb on each other so human race would not exist .
As you know when america was drop atom bomb by plane on Hiroshima ( japan ) .
so atom bomb could not drop over soviet union by plane because many Defence system had prepared .
SO america and soviet union developed ballistic missiles which have long range .
ballistic missile carry atom bomb and can fire with bomb , destroy targets at very long range .
by the development of ballistic missile , made ICBM ( inter continental ballistic missile ) and its warhead can carry atom bombs during this US and soviet union cold war .
Korean war 1950-53
first proxy war in Korea war between Us and soviet union cold war .
when world war 2 was finished , soviet union occupied north korea from north side where as united state occupied south korea from south side .
38 parallal border was present here between north and south korea .
after this north and south korea was turned into two different countries as like east and west Germany .
In 1950 war started between north and south korea .
since north korea was communist and south korea was capitalist in favour of america .
after some time stalement was done . there was no one country win this war .
armies of both north and south Korea stopped at 38 parallal line border .
so A ceasefire agreement was signed between north and south korea .
border of 38 parallal line has changed now these days .
As you can see a red dark line zig zak in above map .
the domino theory in 1950
american policy said that all of countries of asia was turning into communist country during this US and soviet union cold war .
first china turned into communist , second Korea , third vietnam , fourth Laos , cambodia and thailand , malaya , burma , india could be communist .
1950s-Escalation of us and soviet union cold war .
In 1953 joseph stalin had been died after this a new leader was Nikita Khrushchev in soviet union .
In another election was happened in usa , also a new leader of usa was Eisenhower .
In 1955 Formation of WARSAW by soviet union .
one side was NATO countries and other side was WARSAW pact countries
SPACE RACE OF Us and soviet union cold war .
first satellite sent in space by Soviet Union .
first time man sent in space by soviet union .
first reached country on moon was United state .
In 1950 Soviet union did supported to colonial government in Asia , Latin America , and africa , who politicians wanted to make communist government in her country .
for example ;- Vietnam was a France colony , in vietnam gorillas wanted a communist government in vietnam so Soviet Union supported to gorillas .
Even america did not like colonial government and did not want to come communism in other countries so America supported to dictators to stop communism in IRAN , CHILE , BRAZIL , DOMINICA etc .
In 1956 , Hungary was a communist country , Hungarians students did revolution in Hungary against communism , it succeeded to setup his government .
but after some days soviet union sent his army and crushed hungarian students revolution .
1956 , Suez crisis Suez Canal located at Egypt , suel canal made by England so Egypt tried to occupied to suez canal or nationalize against it Israel , France , England tried to attack on Egypt .
soviet union warned to England , France and Israel for take back their armies .
Soviet Union did stand by Egypt in suez crisis during US and soviet union cold war .
then America did pressurize to take back their armies to England , France and Israel otherwise nuclear war might have happened .
In 1950s War in indochina ( vietnam , laos , combodia regions ) —- during Us and soviet union cold war , indochina war rose , local people were fighting against france .
And china , soviet union supported to locals or gorillas of indochina region .
the non-Aligned countries
leader of this group India , Indonesia and Egypt . the meaning of this group was who all countries exist in it , they were not stand by neither America nor soviet union at that time .
The non aligned countries is also known as the three world order .
first world order countries —- Capitalism ( north america , europe )
second order countries —- Communism ( soviet union , north Asia )
third order countries —– south Asia countries , south america countries , south africa countries .
U2 plane incident in cold war 1960s
A U2 plane was flown by America over Russia for spying but this plane was crashed , alive pilot was arrested by soviet union .
soviet union blaimed on America for spying .
A Paris submit had to do between america and soviet union for finishing US and soviet union cold war .
so this submit had failed cause of spying of soviet union by america .
In 1961 Berlin wall had made around west Berlin , constructed by east Berlin .
the cause of making this wall , people run away from east Berlin to west Berlin without permission or asking to government , People did not want to stay in communism country .
when the construction of this wall was started , tension was increased between US and soviet union .
Cuban missile crisis 1962
Cuban missile crises was happened in 1962 . 3 year ago a communist government turned into power . Fidel Castro was a gorilla fighter after revolution .
Fidel castro become prime minister was in power for 50 years .
so a communist government had come in power .
since cuba came in north america so Soviet Union wanted to take a chance to put his missiles systems in Cuba .
soviet union succeeded to make his nuclear base in Cuba .
but America presserise on Cuba for removing USSR nuclear bases .
so America blockade to cuba because cuba surrounding by water area , america stopped ships of soviet Union whenever coming in cuba .
sometimes clashes were about to happen between US Navy and soviet union navy but could not happen at the end during this US and soviet union cold war .
1962 Sino Soviet split
soviet union and china were supported to each other in US and soviet union cold war .
the split of china and soviet union due to some ideological differences .
Mao Zaong was a leader of people Republic of china , Mao said policy of communism and real communism has leaved by soviet union .
but support of china and soviet union carried on to gorillas in vietnam .
the Vietnam war was increasing up in 1960s and many american soldiers , many gorilla fighters were carried off or died in Vietnam war .
In this war , people republic of china and soviet union were supporting to north vietnam after split of china and soviet union .
And America was supporting to south Vietnam .
Finally North Vietnam won and south Vietnam was lost this war during this US and soviet union cold war .
remaining part of this US and soviet union cold war would in next post .