before talking about India china war 1962 , we will have to talk about India china relation . In 1947 India succeeded to get indipendance from Britishers and even china managed to get independance near 1947 .
India china relations
Civil war of china .
In 1949 civil war was running in china and this war was about finished and communists won in this was , they succeeded to established people Republic of china .
And another side Nationalist people who had lost in this war , they went to Taiwan and established Republic of china .
are china and taiwan communist country ?
- China —— people republic of china . ( communist )
- Taiwan ——- republic of china . (nationalist )
But today many countries does not accept to Taiwan as a independent country .
In the beginning India always did support to china and india accepted to china as communist country . but many western country did not stand by china because america , europe did accepted to china as a communist country in the beginning .
Did america and Europe oppose to entering of china in UN ?
America and Europe tried to not entering to china in united nation due to communist country and in every international forum america and england was tried to seperate of china to all countries .
in spite of this india always stand by china and another thing was when china taken veto power before of this india had a chance to get this veto power because this veto power was offered to india .
why did not jawahar lal nehru accept veto power?
india’s prime minister jawahar lal nehru did not accept this power saying this we are non aligned country .
And india’s prime minister said ” we do not need of this power ” and this power was give to only one country in asia . so this power move forward to china . this was a big mistake of indian prime minister .
another side Mao zedong chairman of people republic of china , at that time he was as a president of china and even he was a leader in civil war and he was leading chinese communist party .
china was depend ideologically on mao zedong chinese speak ” maonism ” . Zhou Enlai he was premier of china as a prime minister .
when was tibet make slave of china ?
after 1950 china attacked on tibet , was a semi automous country and tibet people made tibet leader and the name was dalai lama who was spiritual and political leader of tibet . but historically tibet was part of china .
china attached on tibet and managed to get tibet by china at that time india did not help to tibet , tibet could not do anything against china then china and india connect together by border . tibet before slave of china .
worked as a buffer between india and china after tibet turn into part of china so here a disputed border asrien in between india and china and this is big cause of india china war .
before india china war , a agreement was signed which was call Panchsheel .
due this agreement india agree to accept tibet as a part china and due this agreement china and india will not attack on each other and will accept their coexistance .
therefore india never blaimed on china forced tibet to make slave . but america always blaimed on china that chinese communist to captured tibet forcely .
The causes of india china war 1962
main cause of india china war 1962 was the border , this disputed before very time , this was not disputed in 1950 more before this border disputed .
before 1947 in india , britishers ruled in india and In china , different chinese empire ruled in china .
this border always un- demarcated mean is there was not fix border marked in map .
In himalaya’s peak area there was no complete country administrate so small ruler across himalaya’s was having to ruled on himalayas area .
small kingdom area across himalaya , as these kingdom ruled within limited area as today fight going on due to these small area this a cause of india china war 1962 .
first disputed area of India china war 1962
there was a kingdom of ladhak and kingdom of tibet , these two kingdom seperated by natural boundaries which made by small ruler after britisher and chinese people accept this natural boundry .
and another side area of arunachal pradesh , peaks of himalayas ( mcmohan line ) accepted as a natural boundaries by china .
But today china is not accepting this area or boundaries , china is saying that arunachal pradesh is our south part of tibet .
another india’s important area is Tawang in arunachal pradesh , In india china war 1962 chinese army enter by tawang in india’s assam .
In 1956 india differentiate tawang to assam and submitted to NEFA ( north eastern frontier agency ) , now tawang control by NEFA .
second disputed area of India china war 1962
Aksai chin is second disputed area of the cause of india china war 1962 . this is also known as northern front area , this is plague area located at very high so there is no more population .
Pangong tso lake and tso morini lake are two important lake of ladhak , pangong lake situated 30% in india and 70% situated in china approx .
line of actual control ( LAC ) , After india china war 1962 china succeeded to get aksai chin .
third cause of india china war 1962
In 1956 china constructs a highway or a road Xinjiang to tibet via aksai chin by which india taken exception on china’s construction after 3 year .
1959 tibet people uprised against china in tibet then this uprised crushed by chinese military .
during this dalai lama ran away from the tibet and india accepted dalai lama , india wellcame dalai lama .
1960 – zhou enlai visits the india and proposes a status mean they given solution to india , zhou enlai said india will keep NEFA , china will keep aksia chin and their military take back 20 km from border but jawahar lal nehru rejected this proposal .
china used to patrolling in aksai chin in minor times
1959 – 61 many indian soldier had been passed away and they used to attack on each other doing this difference was increasing between india and china .
The forward policy 1960 — through this policy P.m.nehru decided that indian army went to setup their posts on aksai chin and mcmohan line
The India China War 1962
- this war starting 20 Octuber to 21 November 1962 — some indian soldiers went for patrolling , chinese army fired on indian soldiers then indian soldiers started fire on chinese army here from was started this war .
- china taken over on NEFA within four days as well as on tawang — bondila and 60 km inside chinese army managed to take over and came near to brahmaputra river in assam .
- after 4 days there was no fight between india and china for 3 weeks and started negotiation between india and china .
- again zhou enlai sent proposal to p.m.nehru and zhou enlai said you can go back 20 km and we can go back 20 km but already china has entered 60 km inside india and china cleverly want to go back from 60 km inside india but again p.m nehru deny this proposal .
- as soon as deny this proposal war was started on 14 nov in aksai chin and NEFA .
the battle of Rezang La
the battle of rezang la in ladakh , a village situated near rezang la which name is chushul , in chushul china wanted to take over this village but 123 soldiers of 13th kumaon of india succeeded to stop this attack and this 13th kumaon led by maj. shaitan singh .
123 soldiers killed more or less 1000 chinese soldiers at heights of 17000 ft . 114 soldiers out of 123 turned into martyred and maj.shaitan singh dead body found freeze in ice that’s where maj.shaitan singh was martyred .
1386 indian soldiers — killed in action .
1700 indian soldier — missing in action .
4000 indian soldiers — prisoner of war
In india china war 1962
why did india lost india china war 1962 ?
in this war india did not air force and navy . this war was happened at high altitude walfare as well as indian army did not ready for this war because indian army did not have ice repellent clothes , glasses etc .
indian army had no good quality weapons where chinese army had advanced AK47 supplied by russia , north east india had no road because needs and supply had to send to the indian army .
today india learned by this war then india made lots of road , airbase in north east india after india china war 1962 .
In 1962 , 21 november china announced unilateral ceasefire , chinese army went back beyond macmohan line in NEFA . china fully got control on aksai chin .
today chinese soldiers stand a side of LAC and indian soldiers stand another side of LAC .
Why did china announced ceasefire ?
Reason of ceasefire of india china war 1962 .
- China had complete his motive — china wanted to his power for territorial disputed area .
- china had to stop indian forward policy .
- USA , UK and USSR were about to support india —- nehru ji asked for help from america president . USA and USSR were busy in cuban missile crises so one of both could not come for doing help of india in india china war 1962 .
- fear of USA entering the fight during india china war 1962 .
impact on india of india china war 1962
- jawahar lal nehru ‘s prestige huge went down because he was known as a stateman and diplomat and jawahar lal nehru did trust on china but china broke his trust after chinese attacked on india .
- nehru’s political opponent questions arose on j.l.nehru and blaimed on nehru responsibility of lose of india china 1962 war .
- after this india china war 1962 , india has been starting improvement in his army and his weapons system like prithvi missile and agni misssile .
- Henderson – brook – bhagat report — on the in india china war 1962 —- indian government given responsibility to two seniors army officer for analysis of india china war 1962 failure .
- officers name were t.b henderson brooks and premindra singh bhagat .
- india change his policy against china so after india china war 1962 , india wory about china , it seemed china and pakistan can attack on india together .
- unfortunately after india china war 1962 , pakistan and china solved his territory disputed area .
- pakistan gifted trans kara koram tract to china then pakistan and china still have good relations after india china war 1962 .
analysis of politically india china war 1962 .
lose of india china war 1962 was not lose of indian army as well as lose of our political leadership , policies etc. india’s politician did not fear to china but they all were fearing to decrease in his political impact on india .
the army chief general k.s themaenya upset by the defence minister v.k krishna manan , army chief general k.s themaenya to resigned from his post .
v.k krishna manan did not hear anyone , the prime minister jawahar lal nehru did not no to v.k krishna manan during india china war 1962 .
if v.k krishna manan and jawahar lal nehru agreed with indian army chief , result would have different today .
Battle of Nathu La and Cho La
india succeeded to won this battle in aksai chin and arunachal pradesh . In 1967 india and china clashes in sikkim at nathu la and cho la . this clash ran in nathu la for 4 days and in cho la for 1 day .
but here india succeeded to get decisive victory . this clash taken place
- Nathu la —- 11 – 14 september 1967
- cho la —– 1 october 1967
bundary of sikkim join to china’s autonomous region tibet ( lhasa ) , there was a trade root for crossing mountains , some important passes in that trade root like nathu la , jalep la , cho la and dhoka la .
dhoka la ( dhoklam ) these all passes comes in chumbhi valley in sikkim , and this area comes among india , bhutan and china .
since himalaya was a natural barrier or boundry among india ,china and bhutan . there was no fix mark area map .
important passes nathu la and jelep la for visit tibet . In nathu la and jalep la have indian army posts are present there at high area so it easy to observe chinese army from the high peak area .
indian army get tactical advantage from high peak area , indian army can fire on chinese posts .
After 1962 trade had been closed completely in old silk road nathu la then this road again has been open in 2006 because india’s prime minister visit to china in 2003 .
relation between india and china was turned into better .
Inside in china few month before china tested hydrogen bomb and show his power to india and world but this time cultural revolution was going on .
unstability was produced in china then china always aggressive against his external neighbours .
How did start this clashes in nathu la and cho la ?
since india consider as a official of macmohan line .
macmohan line mean is top most crust of himalaya .
but china does not ever accept it more or less .
In these top most crust point , some point is like country may be observe to another country army finely .
so these point china do not want to lose .
always chinese and indian army did patrolling for define his area .
india made physical barrier ( steel wire ) then china did not like it .
The military leadership
- major General sagat singh rathore was general officer commanding ( GOC ) 17 Mountain division in sikkim .
- Lieutenant General jagjit aurora was GOC 33 corps .
- sam manekshaw was the eastern army commander .
All three were heroes of 1971 war as well .
sagat singh’s refusal
In 1965 during india and pakistan war , china helped to pakistan , china sent his soldiers in nathu la and jalep la and there was two observation posts of india , china threaten to india and china wanted that india remove his soldiers from nathu la and jalep la .
those two posts was not heavy but indian head quators had power to call back of his soldiers .
indian commander gave order to posts for calling back of soldiers as china wanted .
then succeeded to get jalep la’s post where as nathu la’s post commander did not follow order of head quator .
the name of nathu la’s commander was Sagat singh .
Sagat singh did not follow order of headquator then sagat singh had been standing in nathu la pass for 2 years .
china could not get that nathu la pass but india loosen his jalep la pass .
the wire fencing work in 1967
we were started wire fencing in nathu la pass toward north and south shoulders as soon as wire fencing started china did interupt .
but india carried on his wire fencing work .
In the morning of 11 sptember 1967 , chinese soldiers came and they started fight to indian soldiers without any fire .
A Commissar person who was lead to china army and he knew to speak english finely . unknownly commissar wear glasses fell down then commissar gave order to chinese army .
commissar gave order for firing , 60 indian soldiers had been died during this clash .
this clash went for 3 days after this india had not no losses .
after india china war 1962 indian army hit back with superior artillery .
artillery guns helped alot of indian army .
indian artillery , mortars and machine guns destroyed many chinese posts .
after china having heavy losses , china moved back little .
this clash went 11 september to 14 september in 1967 , on 15 september with the exchange of dead bodies .
Today , the strategic pass of nathu La is still held by indian troops , while jalep la is in chinese hands .
Cho La Clash
- On 1 octuber 1967 , another clash between india and china took place at cho La , another pass , just a few kilometres north of nathu La .
- chinese had to withdraw nearly three kilometres away from their occupied post before the battle .
- they still hold the same position .
- India — 88 killed — 163 wounded .
- China — 340 killed — 450 wounded .
impact of the war on india
- the spectre of chinese attack still haunted the military and political leadership in india and had prevented them from taking effective action against them .
- this was the first time the chinese got a bloody nose , and the myth of their invincibility was broken .
- Psyychological boost .
- 1971 — china never interfered .
- new crop of military general emerged .